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Footnote 2. The Southern Resident count includes all whales that are seen during a calendar year, and mortalities are included in the count depending on when they take place. For example, a whale that is not seen from March onwards is assumed to be dead. There is less certainty that a whale that is not seen in November or December is dead, and it may be included in the count. In recent years, observer effort has been high and most members of the Southern Resident community are photographed annually, so the count is reasonably precise.
The Northern Resident count also includes all whales that are documented during a calendar year. However, not all members of the Northern Resident community are seen each year, so the count data are generally less precise than for the Southern Residents. By comparison there were approximately Transient Ford et al. The size of the Southern Resident community has been known since the first complete photo-identification census in CWR unpublished data. Figure 2 shows the size of each pod as well as the fluctuation in the total population of the Southern Resident community from to Figure 2 is a graph showing the population size and trends for Southern Resident Killer Whales from to There are four lines on the graph depicting population trends over time: K pod is the lowest line and depicted by a dotted line; J pod is the second lowest line and depicted by a dashed line; L pod is the third lowest line and is depicted by a dot and dash line; and, the entire Southern Resident Killer Whale population including J, K and L pods is the top line on the graph and is depicted by a solid line.
The source for this is unpublished data from the Center for Whale Research. Although the Southern Resident community was likely increasing in size in the early s, the number of whales in the community dropped dramatically in the late s and early s due to live capture for aquariums Bigg and Wolman A total of 47 individuals that are known or likely to have been Southern Residents were captured and removed from the population Bigg et al.
A surge in the number of mature individuals, an increase in births, and a decrease in deaths contributed to the population growth. Another decline began in , with an extended period of poor survival Taylor and Plater ; Krahn et al. Since , the population has fluctuated between 74 and 89 individuals. As would be expected, extinction risk increases when the frequency and magnitude of catastrophes such as oil spills and disease epidemics are elevated.
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Extinction of the Southern Resident population can be regarded as inevitable in these scenarios under the assumptions of the analyses, and catastrophic events simply hasten its demise. A more recent PVA predicted survival and recovery rates of Southern Resident Killer Whales based on sex-structured models and high-quality demographic data that encompassed one Killer Whale generation 25 years; to These models predicted an annual decline of 0. A PVA that explored the relative importance of the primary anthropogenic threats Chinook prey availability, noise and disturbance, and contaminants to Southern Resident Killer Whale population trajectories was constructed by Lacy et al.
These models predicted that prey limitation had the greatest potential to impact population growth, but that either higher levels of noise and disturbance or higher levels of PCB contamination would also be sufficient to shift population trajectories from slow positive growth into decline.
The Northern Resident community was likely increasing in size during the early s, but was cropped by the live capture fishery of to , during which at least 14 individuals were removed. Twelve of those are known to have been from one pod A5, Bigg et al. When first censused in , the Northern Resident community was estimated to contain approximately whales.
Although abundance estimates for Northern Residents are less precise than those for Southern Residents because not all matrilines are seen each year, it appears that the Northern Resident community grew steadily during the period to approximately 3. The population increased to animals in growth of 3. The increased mortality rates that drove the declines during this period for both Northern and Southern Residents coincided with a period of reduced range-wide Chinook Salmon abundance Ford et al.
The Northern Resident Killer Whale population has been increasing at an annual average rate of 2. Population viability analyses based on sex-structured models and high-quality demographic data predicted a 1. Figure 3 is a graph showing the population size and trend for Northern Resident Killer Whales from to The solid trend line starts in with approximately individuals and generally increases over time to a high of approximately individuals in In years with uncertainty, the minimum and maximum population sizes are represented with grey shading on the trend line.
The data sources recognized are Towers et al. It is important to note that Northern and Southern Resident Killer Whales have been studied primarily in protected waters during the months of May to October Ford et al. Their behaviour and ecology in other areas and seasons is less well-known. The following description of the biology of Killer Whales is based on data from both the Northern and Southern Resident populations. Essentially, Resident Killer Whales feed on fish and do not switch to marine mammals when their principal prey species are not abundant.
They are long-lived animals with no natural predators. On average, females produce a single calf every five to six years during a year reproductive period, and as a result the population has an inherently slow rate of growth. Resident Killer Whales have strong cultural traditions that influence their association and mating behaviours, which also limits the capacity for the population to grow.
More detailed information on the factors that may limit the ability of Resident Killer Whale populations to grow is provided below. Although Killer Whales feed on a wide range of prey species globally, Northern and Southern Resident Killer Whales are dietary specialists, feeding primarily on fish Ford et al. Unlike Transient Killer Whales, Resident Killer Whales do not feed on marine mammals and the breadth of their diet appears to be quite limited.
Extensive surface observations and collection of prey fragments from sites of kills by Resident Killer Whales have shown that these whales forage selectively for certain salmonids regardless of their abundance Ford and Ellis ; Ford et al. Non-salmonid fishes do not appear to represent an important component of Resident Killer Whale diet during May-October.
Stomach content analysis from stranded Killer Whales and fecal sampling from live whales also support the importance of Chinook and Chum Salmon in Resident Killer Whale diet Ford et al. Resident Killer Whales likely forage selectively for Chinook Salmon over other available salmonids because of the large size, high fat content, and year-round availability of this species in coastal waters Ford et al.
The movement patterns of Resident Killer Whales are influenced by the availability of their preferred prey. During the summer months, Resident Killer Whale distribution is associated spatially and temporally with the migratory routes of Chinook Salmon as this important prey species returns to natal streams to spawn Ford and Ellis Black, Monterey Bay Whale Watch, unpublished data. The social structure of Killer Whales in BC appears to be complex and differs among the three ecotypes Ford and Ellis ; Ford et al.
The social structure of Resident Killer Whales is the best understood, and one of its unique features is that there is no permanent dispersal of either sex from the natal group. The basic social unit of Resident Killer Whales is the matriline, composed of an older female or matriarch , her male and female offspring, and the offspring of her daughters Ford et al. Because matriarchs have long life spans, some matrilines may contain four or more generations. In over three decades of study, immigration and emigration have rarely been observed Bigg et al.
Two recent cases of juvenile Resident Killer Whales leaving their matrilines and traveling alone are considered to be exceptional, isolated incidents.
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