The issue is whether and how the star as a product of a mass entertainment industry and a singular individual can be used for oppositional politics. Tessa Perkins takes up the question, what and who does Jane Fonda represent? In examining the attempts of the press to contain by belittling the radical claims of her image, the ambivalent responses of many feminists, and the frequent contradiction between image and film roles, Tessa Perkins effectively recasts this question, shifting from the quest for conclusive meaning or political judgement to the proposition that ambivalence itself is part of Jane Fondas significance.
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The intense negotiations which her image provokes clarify issues at stake in the public contest around women and politics. Thus stars offer not fixed meanings nor role models but a focus in the continuous production and struggle to define and redefine desires, meanings and identities. David Lusteds essay on Tommy Cooper, Diana Dors and Eric Morecombe, stars of British variety and cinema who found an alternative existence as television personalities, develops the issue of subcultural contestation in relation to the institution of television, working-class audiences and, implicitly, British culture.
(DOC) Studying Film Stardom: Methods and Debates | Robert Shail - torhlefdeotusa.ml
While these stars are not overtly political, they represent their audiences through the subcultural readings they make possible. The emphasis here is less on image than on the institutional and generic practices of different television programme formats which they exploit or subvert. Against the individualism of the star system, David Lusted. Their work in other entertainment traditions calls up a rich repertoire of reference in popular cultural memory and through their refusal of televisions protocols and their manipulation of its codes, they both represent and collude with working-class experience.
Finally, the different strands of this anthology meet in Kobena Mercers analysis of the convergence of different media industries, music, perform ance, the horror film, stardom, sex, race, masculinity and cinema in the transformations of Michael Jacksons face alluded to or performed in the pop-video, Thriller. The racial and sexual ambiguity of Jacksons androgynous, Peter Panish, Europeanised black looks, the eroticism of the Afro-American soul singers voice, and Thrillers play with the conventions of the horror film all, in Kobena Mercers analysis, combine to question prevailing stereotypes of black masculinity.
Beyond this, Mercer implies, Jacksons success in popularising black music in white markets is linked to his revitalisation of stardom itself. Thriller in its parodic play with show bizz and film genre conventions celebrates both the desire and the horror involved in the metamorphosis which produces the star-as-image.
Kobena Mercers account of Jacksons resonant intertextual image demonstrates that despite the retraction of the Hollywood studio system, stars continue to be produced across the media. More importantly, his analysis shows how a particular star contributes to the arena of cultural contestation when pleasure and politics intersect.
Kehr, A star is made, Film Comment, , vol. Langer, Televisions personality system, Media, Culture and Society, , vol. Johnston, Womens cinema as counter-cinema, in C. Johnson ed. Mulvey, Visual pleasure and narrative cinema, Screen, , vol. Friedberg, Identification and the star: A refusal of difference, in C. Gledhill ed. Gledhill, Introduction and P. Cook, Stars and politics in C. Star Signs: Papers from a Weekend Workshop, op. Gledhill, Pleasurable negotiations in D.
Pribram ed. Female Spectators, London, Verso, Williams, When the woman looks in M. Doane, P. Mellencamp and L. Walker, Psychoanalysis and feminist film theory: The problem of sexual difference and identity, Wide Angle, , vol. Pribram, Female Spectators, op. Read Free For 30 Days. Description: Stardom.
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Society culture and family planning with population. Jump to Page. Search inside document. Pablo Ojeda. Ravi Kumar. Ashok Kumar.
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Cory Peterson. Sachi Sakshi Upadhyaya. Rohit Bhattarai. Ebhi Yunus. Liezel Cauilan. Cnu Andoju. More From Ipsita Barat. Cheung, Esther M. Between Home and World: A Reader. Screening the Past: Memory and Nostalgia in Cinema. Corliss, Richard. April 30, Only Entertianment 2nd edition. Heavenly Bodies: Film Stars and Society 2nd edition. Dyer, Richard ed. Stars 2nd edition. London: British Film Institute, , Indeed, those general concerns will be embedded in the specific instance held up for study: in the case of the movies—a scene, a gesture, an object, an arrangement of people and light.
These examples will amount to the intellectual equivalent of T. Despite all that we think we know about the movies, certain aspects essential to their working remain deeply mysterious. How do we assign responsibility for any particular shot or scene? Hollywood understood the problem and tried to solve it with organization. As Ronald L. Davis has detailed, MGM, the most successful studio, installed a system designed specifically to discover and develop stars: Talent Department scouts regularly kept their eyes on Broadway, regional theaters, universities, beauty pageants, nightclubs, and even local newspaper photographs of provincial debutantes, inviting those who interested them to a preliminary interview.
Although locals had a better chance of being discovered as Lana Turner was in a Hollywood lingerie shop , some like Greta Garbo came from overseas. Of that group, MGM would screen-test roughly five, a silent test first, followed by a sound test, on a set with a professional cameraman, second-unit director, and other contract actors. The studio might sign one of the screen-tested group, offering the standard seven-year contract, with options allowing the studio to drop the actor after each six-month period.
Lillian Burns would then instruct the newcomer, not only about acting, but also about such things as grooming and manners.
Potential stars would begin in B-movies or with small parts in big pictures, eventually graduating, if they proved appealing to the public, to lead roles in major films. Like nearly all of its competitors, MGM was attempting to rationalize the mysteries of stardom. George Cukor put his finger on the problem:. Lewis Milestone used to tell this story. We know that as a technologically based, capital-intensive medium, the commercial cinema quickly developed into an industry keenly attracted by Taylorist-Fordist models of rationalized production. Thus, as Thomas Schatz has explained in detail, 17 the studios explicitly imitated the organizational system developed in large-scale manufacturing and perfected by Frederick Taylor, whose Principles of Scientific Management , first published in , became the new industry Bible.
And the result?
Stars and Stardom in French Cinema
At the peak of its earlys power, MGM could produce one feature film per week. That way could be discovered by breaking down a task into its smallest components, which experts could analyze, refine, and then teach to those workers best suited to its demands. Lifting pig-iron demanded phlegmatic strong men; for sorting ball-bearings, Taylor preferred unimaginative girls.
Matching workers to the job. As proof of his claim, Taylor offered a series of examples, the most famous of which became the case of a pig-iron handler he named Schmidt. In , the Bethlehem Steel Company faced a problem. The Spanish-American War, which had just ended, had suddenly driven up the price of pig iron, of which the company had eighty thousand tons sitting in an open field. Bethlehem had no trouble finding buyers for this newly valuable commodity, but shipping it to them meant loading all of the individual pigs onto boxcars.
Now one of the very first requirements for a man who is fit to handle pig iron as a regular occupation is that he shall be so stupid and so phlegmatic that he more nearly resembles in his mental make-up the ox than any other type. The man who is mentally alert and intelligent is for this very reason entirely unsuited to what would, for him, be the grinding monotony of work of this character. Everyone wins, right? Well, not exactly. A worker with his own ideas about a job will run into trouble.
Related Stardom: Industry of Desire
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