Topics covered include the benefits and use of the new features in managing change, diagnosing and recovering from problems, ensuring high availability, improving scalability and performance, strengthening security, and several other areas of particular interest to database administrators. In addition, hands-on practice sessions help reinforce understanding of the new capabilities. All rights reserved. Page 4. The "c" in the current release, Oracle Database 19c, stands for "Cloud".
What are the differences between 11g and 12c Oracle Database?
Previous releases e. Oracle Database 10g and Oracle9i Database have used suffixes of "g" and "i" which stand for "Grid" and "Internet" respectively. Prior to the release of Oracle8i Database, no suffixes featured in Oracle Database naming conventions.
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Note that there was no v1 of Oracle Database, as Larry Ellison , "knew no one would want to buy version 1". July on-prem: August most recent patch set . The Oracle Database Administrators Guide includes a brief history on some of the key innovations introduced with each major release of Oracle Database.
Oracle DB 11G New Features
Oracle Database may be licensed and deployed on-premises on a choice of platforms including Oracle Engineered Systems, and on-Cloud with a choice of services running on general purpose hardware or Exadata. The various editions and Cloud services provide different levels of database functionality for different use cases e. Oracle Database Cloud Services are available on a choice of general purpose hardware and Exadata engineered systems, in either virtual machines environments or 'bare metal' infrastructure now known as Oracle Cloud Infrastructure.
As of [update] , the latest Oracle Database version In , Oracle Corporation announced the availability of Oracle Database Appliance , a pre-built, pre-tuned, highly available clustered database server built using two SunFire X86 servers and direct attached storage. Some Oracle Enterprise Edition databases running on certain Oracle-supplied hardware can use Hybrid Columnar Compression for more efficient storage. The Oracle Database offers a wide range of options  and features in the areas of Availability, Scalability, Analytics, Performance, Security, Management, Developers and Integration.
These aim to enhance and complement existing database functionality to meet customer-specific requirements. Apart from the clearly defined database options, Oracle databases may include many semi-autonomous software sub-systems, which Oracle Corporation sometimes refers to as "features" in a sense subtly different from the normal use of the word. Oracle database provides a long list of supported data models that can be used and managed inside Oracle database:. Oracle Corporation classifies as "utilities" bundled software supporting data transfer, data maintenance and database administration.
As of [update] Oracle Corporation had started a drive toward "wizard"-driven environments with a view to enabling non-programmers to produce simple data-driven applications.
It incorporates standard and customized reporting. Oracle's OPatch provides patch management for Oracle databases. Oracle Database can be accessed from many programming languages and environments. These include:. The support site provides users of Oracle Corporation products with a repository of reported problems, diagnostic scripts and solutions.
It also integrates with the provision of support tools, patches and upgrades. The data captured provides an overview of the Oracle Database environment intended for diagnostic and trouble-shooting.
Oracle Corporation also endorses certain practices and conventions as enhancing the use of its database products. The Oracle Certification Program , a professional certification program, includes the administration of Oracle Databases as one of its main certification paths. It contains three levels:. Oracle and IBM tend to battle for the mid-range database market on Unix and Linux platforms, while Microsoft dominates the mid-range database market on Microsoft Windows platforms.
However, since they share many of the same customers, Oracle and IBM tend to support each other's products in many middleware and application categories for example: WebSphere , PeopleSoft , and Siebel Systems CRM , and IBM's hardware divisions work closely [ citation needed ] with Oracle on performance-optimizing server-technologies for example, Linux on z Systems. Database products licensed as open source are, by the legal terms of the Open Source Definition , free to distribute and free of royalty or other licensing fees.
An Oracle database system—identified by an alphanumeric system identifier or SID  —comprises at least one instance of the application, along with data storage. An instance—identified persistently by an instantiation number or activation id: SYS.
Oracle documentation can refer to an active database instance as a "shared memory realm". In addition to storage, the database consists of online redo logs or logs , which hold transactional history. Processes can in turn archive the online redo logs into archive logs offline redo logs , which provide the basis for data recovery and for the physical-standby forms of data replication using Oracle Data Guard.
In version 10 g , grid computing introduced shared resources where an instance can use CPU resources from another node in the grid. Information is shared between nodes through the interconnect—the virtual private network.
The Oracle RDBMS stores data logically in the form of tablespaces and physically in the form of data files " datafiles ". Segments in turn comprise one or more extents. Extents comprise groups of contiguous data blocks. Data blocks form the basic units of data storage. A DBA can impose maximum quotas on storage per user within each tablespace.
The partitioning feature was introduced in Oracle 8. Specific partitions can then be added or dropped to help manage large data sets. Oracle database management tracks its computer data storage with the help of information stored in the SYSTEM tablespace. A data dictionary consists of a special collection of tables that contains information about all user- objects in the database. Since version 8 i , the Oracle RDBMS also supports "locally managed" tablespaces that store space management information in bitmaps in their own headers rather than in the SYSTEM tablespace as happens with the default "dictionary-managed" tablespaces.
At the physical level, data files comprise one or more data blocks , where the block size can vary between data files. Data files can occupy pre-allocated space in the file system of a computer server, use raw disk directly, or exist within ASM logical volumes. After the installation process sets up sample tables, the user logs into the database with the username scott and the password tiger. Other default schemas   include:. Each Oracle instance allocates itself an SGA when it starts and de-allocates it at shut-down time. The information in the SGA consists of the following elements, each of which has a fixed size, established at instance startup:.
Every Oracle database has one or more physical datafiles, which contain all the database data.
Oracle Database 11g: New Features for Administrators - torhlefdeotusa.ml
The data of logical database structures, such as tables and indexes, is physically stored in the datafiles allocated for a database. Data in a datafile is read, as needed, during normal database operation and stored in the memory cache of Oracle Database. For example, if a user wants to access some data in a table of a database, and if the requested information is not already in the memory cache for the database, then it is read from the appropriate datafiles and stored in memory. Modified or new data is not necessarily written to a datafile immediately. To reduce the amount of disk access and to increase performance, data is pooled in memory and written to the appropriate datafiles all at once.
The library cache  stores shared SQL, caching the parse tree and the execution plan for every unique SQL statement. This reduces the amount of memory needed and reduces the processing-time used for parsing and execution planning.
The data dictionary comprises a set of tables and views that map the structure of the database. Oracle databases store information here about the logical and physical structure of the database. The data dictionary contains information such as:. The Oracle instance frequently accesses the data dictionary to parse SQL statements.
Oracle operation depends on ready access to the data dictionary—performance bottlenecks in the data dictionary affect all Oracle users. Because of this, database administrators must make sure that the data dictionary cache  has sufficient capacity to cache this data. Without enough memory for the data-dictionary cache, users see a severe performance degradation. Allocating sufficient memory to the shared pool where the data dictionary cache resides precludes this particular performance problem. The Program Global Area   or PGA memory-area of an Oracle instance contains data and control-information for Oracle's server-processes or background process.
The size and content of the PGA depends on the Oracle-server options installed. This area consists of the following components:. The Oracle RDBMS typically relies on a group of processes running simultaneously in the background and interacting to monitor and expedite database operations. Typical operating environments might include — temporarily or permanently — some of the following individual processes shown along with their abbreviated nomenclature : .
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