Genetic variation of traits and triploids and the manipulation of ploidy are fully covered, and another new chapter is included, entitled 'From Genetics to Genomics'. The book concludes with a chapter covering the impact of genetic engineering in aquaculture. With the inclusion of a wealth of up-to-date information, new text and figures and the inclusion of a third author, Pierre Boudry, the second edition of Biotechnology and Genetics in Fisheries and Aquaculture provides an excellent text and reference of great value and use to upper level students and professionals working across fish biology, aquatic sciences, fisheries, aquaculture, genetics and biotechnology.
Libraries in all universities and research establishments where biological sciences, fisheries and aquaculture are studied and taught should have several copies of this excellent new edition on their shelves. Water resources, Aquaculture, Biodiversity Conservation, Molecular Genetics and biotechnology of fisheries and aquaculture Bioscience. Biotechnology and Genetics in Fisheries and Aquaculture eBook Biotechnology and Genetics in Fisheries and Aquacultureis of great use to biological sciences students, particularly thosestudying marine, freshwater and aquatic biology, fish biology,fisheries, aquaculture, population biology and genetics.
The Galactic Council. The World's Most Romantic Destinations. Raising Eden : Wisdom of the Eternal. In particular the per capita land-based natural resources suitable for agriculture 0. To meet the ever-growing food requirement for the continuously increasing population, food security is one of the most important issues facing the Chinese people [ 2 ].
Traditionally, China has been a global leader in fisheries production. The cultured seafood production in China reached 1,, tons in Six main kinds of cultured seafood including kelp, shrimp, mussel, razor clam and clam ranked first globally in the same year [ 4 ]. There are It is expected that the total output of aquatic products in will reach 76 million t.
At present, China has become the only country where the output of the mariculture industry is larger than that of the fishing industry. Marine fisheries GDP was The extension of the marine industrial chain clearly indicated the expansion of production and increase of benefits, promoting greatly the growth of marine economy [ 8 ]. China is now actively promoting the integration and innovation of fisheries sciences, leading fisheries science to a new stage of development [ 9 ]. The following three figures provide some statistics for national marine fisheries including mariculture [ 6 ].
Aquaculture is the fastest growing food-producing sector in the world and is expected to continue to grow and help compensate for the anticipated global supply shortage of capture fisheries [ 10 ]. Obviously, the only way to meet the increasing demand for fish is through aquaculture.
Daniel Cressey [ 11 ] explored the challenges for fish farmers and what it means for dinner plates in However, sustainable development of the aquaculture industry faces difficult issues, including lack of captive breeding and domesticated strains, disease control, remediation of polluted water environments, the changing globe climate, and so on. Therefore, development of knowledge-based technologies is urgently needed.
For these reasons, mariculture in China has been of concern to the international scientific and industrial communities. It is viewed as highly likely to significantly affect the services and the values of the coastal ecosystem [ 2 ]. Another environmental challenge is the interference by human activities. Currently, the coastal zone is the region most affected by human activities, with pollution, eutrophication, changes in sediment transport, urbanization, land reclamation, over-fishing, tourism, and mining; these activities constantly threaten the health of coastal ecosystems.
China is located on the western side of the Pacific Ocean, with coastal areas on its eastern and southern sides and more than 18, km of shoreline. The total area of coastal zone is about , km 2 , including over islands that each area is larger than m 2. Chinese maritime regions are in the middle and low latitudes with distinctive natural environments and resources. At present and for a fairly long time to come, global-warming leading to environmental change will not only be a hot scientific issue, but also a major political issue of international concern.
Biotechnology and Genetics in Fisheries and Aquaculture
In [ 7 ], the overall level of pollution in Chinese coastal waters was still relatively high. Pollutants from most of the sewage-discharging sites exceeded the standard for waste water discharge. In addition, the rapid but sometimes unregulated development of the mariculture industry causes negative impacts on coastal ecosystems, leading to problems such as pollution, eutrophication, change of ecosystem structure and function, disease, red tide, etc. Solving these problems is an important task for scientists in China now and in the future. Sound knowledge of the biology and ecology of aquatic organisms has laid a solid foundation and provided the innovation and technology for rapid development of the aquaculture industry and other novel products.
Biotechnology and Genetics in Fisheries and Aquaculture | NHBS Academic & Professional Books
The application of biotechnology to freshwater and marine resources may help to address the global challenges of food, energy security and health as well as contribute to green growth and sustainable industries [ 12 ]. In the new century, with serious challenges regarding population, resources and the environment, China has been working to develop high-quality, effective, healthy, and sustainable blue agriculture through the application of modern biotechnology [ 13 ]. Marine biotechnology has been developed since the last decades of the 20th Century in China.
Zeng, began to suggest that the government pay close attention to marine biotechnology [ 4 ]. Through several years of effort by the scientists and administrators, the subject of Marine Biotechnology gained approval for listing in the National High Tech Project Project in The objectives are thus to promote the development of key technologies for rational utilization of marine bio-resources, as well as environmental protection technologies that relate to social sustainable development [ 14 ].
Moreover, biotech scientists who had been conducting terrestrial research were also attracted to the marine field. Thus, the distance between marine biotechnology and land-based biotechnology was greatly reduced. Through decades of effort using marine biotechnology, China has already attained many remarkable achievements. The precondition of aquaculture production is to continuously obtain different suitable seedlings, larvae or fingerlings. In ancient times, farmers collected wild larval or juvenile aquatic animals to culture.
At present, there are still some farms that have to use wild seeds, for example eels and some high-price rock fish etc. However, more and more species have been domesticated and bred under artificially controlled conditions. Manipulation of reproduction enables growers to intervene and control the reproductive procedure of animals by physical, chemical and biochemical means, in order to fit the needs of aquaculture [ 15 , 16 ].
Fish Biotechnology Genetics And Aquaculture
Genetic manipulation allows modification and recombination of the genetic structure at the cytological and molecular levels. Reproductive manipulation includes the regulation of maturation, control of gamete spawning, implementation of artificial fertilization and sex ratio control, while genetic manipulation includes hybridization, polyploid induction, gynogenesis and androgenesis, cell fusion, nuclear transplant and foreign gene transfer. One of the most important factors for sustainable aquaculture is the development of high performance culture strains.
Over the last 20 years, significant progress has been made in fish biology and biotechnology, especially in the field of genetic breeding [ 17 ]. The development and application of marine biotechnology may improve the genetic performances of aquatic animals with higher output, better quality and more resistance against disease.
For the purpose of genetic improvement, researchers can select for desirable genetic traits, integrate a suite of traits from different donors, or alter the innate genetic traits of a species [ 18 ]. These improved varieties have, in many cases, facilitated the development of the aquaculture industry by lowering costs and increasing both quality and yield [ 19 ].
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There are many approaches to achieve genetic improvements for aquatic organisms, such as traditional selective breeding and molecular marker-assisted selective breeding [ 20 ], hybridization close- and distant- , cytoengineering including polyploidization, gynogenesis and androgenesis , genome-wide selective breeding, nuclear transplantation, transplantation of germline stem cells and germ cells [ 21 ], modification breeding technologies transgenic technology and so on.
Chromosome set manipulation is a useful genetic tool that can artificially change the composition of the normal chromosomal structure in the diploid animals, in order to obtain production gains such as higher growth rate, better resistance against diseases. Sex-control can be achieved via chromosome manipulation. Both physical including temperature, pressure, etc and chemical methods have been used to produce triploid and tetraploid stocks.
The timing, magnitude and rate of application of temperature shock are the critical variables in successful triploid or tetraploid shrimp induction [ 22 ]. Triploids typically exhibit rapid growth, strong disease resistance and high yield, so they are of high economic value. Additionally, the majority of allotriploid fish are infertile, which reduces issues associated with diversion of energy to gametic growth, mixing of genetic lines, and interbreeding with wild stocks [ 18 , 23 ]. Breeding of important culture animals has made important progress in China.
These varieties were obtained by artificial selection, hybridization, introduction from foreign countries and so on, including fishes, molluscs scallop, abalone, pearl oyster , crustaceans shrimp and crabs , echinoderms sea cucumbers, urchins and sea weeds kelp, nori and Gracilaria. For example, in , and , nine, seven and fifteen novel aquatic varieties were approved in each year respectively.
All of these novel varieties have been playing important roles to increase aquaculture production in China. For example, Wang et al. Subsequently, they developed a Y- and X-specific allele marker-assisted sex control process for cultivating all-male populations [ 17 ]. Because transgenic methods can be easily applied to incorporate the function of a specific gene, this approach is potentially the most direct and rapid method of obtaining a stable and genetically inherited trait in fish.
The first transgenic fish was generated by over-expression of human growth hormone hGH gene driven by a mouse metallothionein-1 MT gene promoter in Chinese goldfish [ 25 ]. Since that time, a lot of progress has been made in China. In addition to transgenesis, recently developed genome editing techniques provide an enormously valuable tool for fish breeding that allows researchers to modify multiple genes at precise sites with high efficiency and in a comparably short time [ 26 ]. Fish biology and biotechnology have provided the innovation and technology for rapid development of the aquaculture industry.
With regard to marine biology, China has conducted a great deal of research in basic theory, resources investigation, important species cultivation, domestication of varieties, artificial breeding, and culture technology.
These tools are utilized to identify genetic markers associated with traits of commercial interest, and to unravel the molecular basis of different physiological processes. In recent years, an important effort has been directed towards the use of functional genomics, proteomics and metabolomics to better characterize the reproduction, development, nutrition, immunity and toxicology of aquaculture organisms.
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