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An Analysis of the Scientific Literature: Phillips and J. Scientific experimentation on animals first became a common investigative procedure during the scientific revolution of the s.
Early scientific vivisection was a ghastly business redolent of the torture chamber, in which the animal suffered the agonies of being dissected alive and the only anesthetic employed was the Cartesian philosophy that dulled the sensibilities of the experimenter. Outcries against experimentation on animals began to be heard in the mids and grew during the 19th century into a political movement, which has continued ever since to foment protests and agitate for laws aimed at protecting animals from scientists.
Laws restricting and regulating the use of animals in research were instituted in Victorian England and Nazi Germany, but the United States and most other countries had no such laws on the books until the s, when attitudes toward animal research began to change among lawmakers, the general public, and scientists themselves. In this book, M. Sechzer briefly sketch the history of the vivisection controversy, and go on to document and analyze those changing attitudes in the American scientific literature during two crucial decades, from the passage of the U.
From their sample of scientific publications dealing with animal welfare--books, journal articles, editorials, published letters--published in the United States during those 20 years, Phillips and Sechzer report some interesting and occasionally surprising findings, which deserve the attention of everybody who cares about these issues. Many of the findings reported here will come as no surprise. But other aspects of the literature surveyed are not what one might have expected, and some of the data presented here hint at marked changes in the attitudes of scientists toward the use of animals in the laboratory during the 20 years covered by the survey.
For example, from the first 8 years of the sample , Phillips and Sechzer recovered only seven published items dealing with the ethics of experimentation on animals, and most of those dismissed the issue as trivial or irrelevant. This contention actually turned out to be the most common single theme expressed in the whole body of scientific publications dealing with the controversy over animal experimentation.
Related Animal Research and Ethical Conflict: An Analysis of the Scientific Literature: 1966–1986
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